Saturday, 14 April 2012


Hi.. kalau korang nak tahu, SPSS ni merupakan satu software di mana student-student macam kita dan juga perniagaan boleh pakai. Maksudnya, korang boleh beli atau download je software SPSS ni dari kawan-kawan korang. SPSS ni rupa dia macam Microsoft Excel, tapi dia bukan Microsoft Excel tau!
Korang boleh key-in maklumat kat dalam software ni.. Best! Sebenarnya SPSS ni lagi mudah digunakan untuk simpan data berbanding dengan Microsoft Excel. Maksudnya, SPSS ni isi maklumat korang secara automatik. Kalau korang nak lebih info tentang cara nak menggunakan software ni, korang boleh klik pada contoh tutorial SPSS, ‘SPSS Tutorial Correlation and Regression’ kat Youtube. Hope korang enjoy!


SPSS (asalnya, Pakej Statistik untuk Sains Sosial) telah dikeluarkan dalam versi yang pertama pada tahun 1968 selepas dibangunkan oleh Norman H. Nie dan C. Hadlai Hull. SPSS adalah antara program yang paling banyak digunakan untuk analisis statistik dalam sains sosial . Ia digunakan oleh penyelidik pasaran, penyelidik kesihatan, syarikat ukur, kerajaan, penyelidik pendidikan, organisasi pemasaran dan lain-lain.

Statistik yang dimasukkan ke dalam perisian asas (dalam Bahasa Inggeris):

  • Descriptive statistics: Cross tabulation, Frequencies, Descriptives, Explore, Descriptive Ratio Statistics
  • Bivariate statistics: Means, t-test, ANOVA, Correlation (bivariate, partial, distances), Nonparametric tests
  • Prediction for numerical outcomes: Linear regression
  • Prediction for identifying groups: Factor analysis, cluster analysis (two-step, K-means, hierarchical), Discriminant

The many features of SPSS are accessible via pull-down menus or can be programmed with a proprietary 4GL command syntax language. Command syntax programming has the benefits of reproducibility, simplifying repetitive tasks, and handling complex data manipulations and analyses. Additionally, some complex applications can only be programmed in syntax and are not accessible through the menu structure. The pull-down menu interface also generates command syntax; this can be displayed in the output, although the default settings have to be changed to make the syntax visible to the user. They can also be pasted into a syntax file using the "paste" button present in each menu. Programs can be run interactively or unattended, using the supplied Production Job Facility. Additionally a "macro" language can be used to write command language subroutines and a Python programmability extension can access the information in the data dictionary and data and dynamically build command syntax programs. The Python programmability extension, introduced in SPSS 14, replaced the less functional SAX Basic "scripts" for most purposes, although SaxBasic remains available. In addition, the Python extension allows SPSS to run any of the statistics in the free software package R. From version 14 onwards SPSS can be driven externally by a Python or a VB.NET program using supplied "plug-ins".
SPSS places constraints on internal file structure, data types, data processing and matching files, which together considerably simplify programming. SPSS datasets have a 2-dimensional table structure where the rows typically represent cases (such as individuals or households) and the columns represent measurements (such as age, sex or household income). Only 2 data types are defined: numeric and text (or "string"). All data processing occurs sequentially case-by-case through the file. Files can be matched one-to-one and one-to-many, but not many-to-many.
The graphical user interface has two views which can be toggled by clicking on one of the two tabs in the bottom left of the SPSS window. The 'Data View' shows a spreadsheet view of the cases (rows) and variables (columns). Unlike spreadsheets, the data cells can only contain numbers or text and formulas cannot be stored in these cells. The 'Variable View' displays the metadata dictionary where each row represents a variable and shows the variable name, variable label, value label(s), print width, measurement type and a variety of other characteristics. Cells in both views can be manually edited, defining the file structure and allowing data entry without using command syntax. This may be sufficient for small datasets. Larger datasets such as statistical surveys are more often created in data entry software, or entered during computer-assisted personal interviewing, by scanning and using optical character recognition and optical mark recognition software, or by direct capture from online questionnaires. These datasets are then read into SPSS.
SPSS can read and write data from ASCII text files (including hierarchical files), other statistics packages, spreadsheets and databases. SPSS can read and write to external relational database tables via ODBC and SQL.
Statistical output is to a proprietary file format (*.spv file, supporting pivot tables) for which, in addition to the in-package viewer, a stand-alone reader can be downloaded. The proprietary output can be exported to text or Microsoft Word, PDF, Excel, and other formats. Alternatively, output can be captured as data (using the OMS command), as text, tab-delimited text, PDF, XLS, HTML, XML, SPSS dataset or a variety of graphic image formats (JPEG, PNG, BMP and EMF).
SPSS Server is a version of SPSS with a client/server architecture. It had some features not available in the desktop version, such as scoring functions (Scoring functions are included in the desktop version from version 19).

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